To apply Doppler principle to radars and hence detect moving targets, cluster, also to understand tracking radars
To refresh principles of antennas and propagation as related to radars, also study of transmitters and receivers.
To understand principles of navigation, in addition to approach and landing aids as related to navigation
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO RADAR EQUATION 9
Introduction- Basic Radar –The simple form of the Radar Equation- Radar Block Diagram- Radar Frequencies –Applications of Radar – The Origins of Radar – Detection of Signals in Noise- Receiver Noise and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio-Probability Density Functions- Probabilities of Detection and False Alarm- Integration of Radar Pulses- Radar Cross Section of Targets- Radar
cross Section Fluctuations- Transmitter Power-Pulse Repetition Frequency- Antenna Parameters- System losses – Other Radar Equation Considerations.
UNIT II MTI AND PULSE DOPPLER RADAR 9
Introduction to Doppler and MTI Radar- Delay –Line Cancellers- Staggered Pulse Repetition Frequencies –Doppler Filter Banks – Digital MTI Processing – Moving Target Detector – Limitations to MTI Performance – MTI from a Moving Platform (AMIT) – Pulse Doppler Radar – Other Doppler Radar Topics- Tracking with Radar –Monopulse Tracking –Conical Scan and Sequential Lobing – Limitations to Tracking Accuracy – Low-Angle Tracking – Tracking in Range – Other Tracking Radar Topics – Comparison of Trackers – Automatic Tracking with Surveillance Radars (ADT).
UNIT III DETECTION OF SIGNALS IN NOISE 9
Matched –Filter Receiver –Detection Criteria – Detectors –-Automatic Detector – Integrators – Constant-False-Alarm Rate Receivers – The Radar operator – Signal Management – Propagation Radar Waves – Atmospheric Refraction -Standard propagation – Nonstandard Propagation – The
Radar Antenna – Reflector Antennas – Electronically Steered Phased Array Antennas – Phase Shifters – Frequency-Scan Arrays Radar Transmitters and Receivers – Introduction –Linear Beam Power Tubes – Solid State RF Power Sources – Magnetron – Crossed Field Amplifiers – Other RF Power Sources – Other aspects of Radar Transmitter.- The Radar Receiver – Receiver noise Figure – Super heterodyne Receiver – Duplexers and Receiver Protectors- Radar Displays.
UNIT IV RADIO DIRECTION AND RANGES 9
Introduction – Four methods of Navigation .- The Loop Antenna – Loop Input Circuits – An Aural Null Direction Finder – The Goniometer – Errors in Direction Finding – Adcock Direction Finders – Direction Finding at Very High Frequencies – Automatic Direction Finders – The Commutated
Aerial Direction Finder – Range and Accuracy of Direction Finders – The LF/MF Four course Radio Range – VHF Omni Directional Range(VOR) – VOR Receiving Equipment – Range and Accuracy of VOR – Recent Developments.
Hyperbolic Systems of Navigation (Loran and Decca) – Loran-A – Loran-A Equipment – Range and precision of Standard Loran – Loran-C – The Decca Navigation System -Decca Receivers – Range and Accuracy of Decca – The Omega System.
UNIT V SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEM 9
Distance Measuring Equipment – Operation of DME – TACAN – TACAN Equipment – Instrument Landing System – Ground Controlled Approach System – Microwave Landing System(MLS) The Doppler Effect – Beam Configurations -Doppler Frequency Equations – Track Stabilization –
Doppler Spectrum – Components of the Doppler Navigation System – Doppler range Equation – Accuracy of Doppler Navigation Systems. Inertial Navigation – Principles of Operation – Navigation Over the Earth– Components of an Inertial Navigation System – Earth Coordinate Mechanization – Strapped-Down Systems – Accuracy of Inertial Navigation Systems-The Transit System – Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS).
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
After studying this course, Students will be able to
Explain principles of navigation, in addition to approach and landing aids as related to navigation
Derive and discuss the Range equation and the nature of detection.
Describe about the navigation systems using the satellite.
- Merrill I. Skolnik ,” Introduction to Radar Systems”, 3rd Edition Tata Mc Graw-Hill 2003.. (For unit-1&2)
- N.S.Nagaraja, “Elements of Electronic Navigation Systems”, 2nd Edition, TMH, 2000. (For unit-3,4&5)
- Peyton Z. Peebles:, “Radar Principles”, John Wiley, 2004
- J.C Toomay, ” Principles of Radar”, 2nd Edition –PHI, 2004