To contribute to the knowledge of Fibre optics and Laser Instrumentation and its Industrial andMedical Application.
To expose the students to the basic concepts of optical fibres and their properties.
To provide adequate knowledge about the Industrial applications of optical fibres.
To expose the students to the Laser fundamentals.
To provide adequate knowledge about Industrial application of lasers.
To provide adequate knowledge about holography and Medical applications of Lasers.
UNIT I OPTICAL FIBRES AND THEIR PROPERTIES 9
Construction of optical fiber cable: Guiding mechanism in optical fiber and Basic component of optical fiber communication, –Principles of light propagation through a fibre: Total internal reflection, Acceptance angle (θa), Numerical aperture and Skew mode, –Different types of fibres and their properties: Single and multimode fibers and Step index and graded index fibers,– fibrecharacteristics: Mechanical characteristics and Transmission characteristics, – Absorption losses – Scattering losses
– Dispersion – Connectors and splicers –Fibre termination – Optical sources: Light Emitting Diode (LED), – Optical detectors: PIN Diode.
UNIT II INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF OPTICAL FIBRES 9
Fibre optic sensors: Types of fiber optics sensor, Intrinsic sensor- Temperature/ Pressure sensor, Extrinsic sensors, Phase Modulated Fibre Optic Sensor and Displacement sensor (Extrinsic Sensor) – Fibre optic instrumentation system: Measurement of attenuation (by cut back method), Optical domain reflectometers, Fiber Scattering loss Measurement, Fiber Absorption Measurement, Fiber dispersion measurements, End reflection method and Near field scanning techniques – Different types of modulators: Electro-optic modulator (EOM) –Interferometric method of measurement of length – Moire fringes – Measurement of pressure, temperature, current, voltage, liquid level and strain.
UNIT III LASER FUNDAMENTALS 9
Fundamental characteristics of lasers – Level Lasers: Two-Level Laser, Three Level Laser, Quasi Three and four level lasers – Properties of laser: Monochromaticity, Coherence, Divergence and Directionality and Brightness –Laser modes – Resonator configuration – Q-switching and mode
locking – Cavity damping – Types of lasers; – Gas lasers, solid lasers, liquid lasers and semiconductor lasers.
UNIT IV INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF LASERS 9
Laser for measurement of distance, Laser for measurement of length, Laser for measurement of velocity, Laser for measurement of acceleration, Laser for measurement of current, voltage and Laser for measurement of Atmospheric Effect: Types of LIDAR, Construction And Working, and LIDAR
Applications – Material processing: Laser instrumentation for material processing, Powder Feeder, Laser Heating, Laser Welding, Laser Melting, Conduction Limited Melting and Key Hole Melting – Laser trimming of material: Process Of Laser Trimming, Types Of Trim, Construction And Working Advantages – Material Removal and vaporization: Process Of Material Removal.
UNIT V HOLOGRAM AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 9
Holography: Basic Principle, Holography vs. photography, Principle Of Hologram Recording, Condition For Recording A Hologram, Reconstructing and viewing the holographic image– Holography for non-destructive testing – Holographic components – Medical applications of lasers, laser-Tissue Interactions Photochemical reactions, Thermalisation, collisional relaxation, Types of Interactions and Selecting an Interaction Mechanism – Laser instruments for surgery, removal of tumors of vocal cards, brain surgery, plastic surgery, gynaecology and oncology.
TOTAL : 45 PERIODS
COURSE OUTCOMES (COs):
- Understand the principle, transmission, dispersion and attenuation characteristics of opticalfibers
- Apply the gained knowledge on optical fibers for its use as communication medium and as sensor
as well which have important applications in production, manufacturing industrial and biomedical
- Understand laser theory and laser generation system.
- Students will gain ability to apply laser theory for the selection of lasers for a specific Industrial and
- J.M. Senior, ‘Optical Fibre Communication – Principles and Practice’, Prentice Hall of India,1985.
- J. Wilson and J.F.B. Hawkes, ‘Introduction to Opto Electronics’, Prentice Hall of India, 2001.
- Eric Udd, William B., and Spillman, Jr., “Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists “, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
- G. Keiser, ‘Optical Fibre Communication’, McGraw Hill, 1995.
- M. Arumugam, ‘Optical Fibre Communication and Sensors’, Anuradha Agencies, 2002. 101
- John F. Ready, “Industrial Applications of Lasers”, Academic Press, Digitized in 2008.
- Monte Ross, ‘Laser Applications’, McGraw Hill, 1968.
- John and Harry, “Industrial lasers and their application”, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
- Keiser, G., “Optical Fiber Communication”, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition, 2000. http://nptel.ac.in/courses/117101002/