### Hidden Markov Models Copy

A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a statistical model which is also used in machine learning. It can be used to describe the evolution of observable events that depend on internal factors, which are not directly observable. These are a class of probabilistic graphical models that allow us to predict a sequence of unknown variables from a set of observed variables.

**Hidden Markov Model**

The Hidden Markov model is a probabilistic model which is used to explain or derive the probabilistic characteristic of any random process. It basically says that an observed event will not be corresponding to its step-by-step status but related to a set of probability distributions. Let’s assume a system that is being modelled is assumed to be a Markov chain and in the process, there are some hidden states. In that case, we can say that hidden states are a process that depends on the main Markov process/chain.

**Hidden Markov Model With an Example**

To explain it more we can take the example of two friends, Rahul and Ashok. Now Rahul completes his daily life works according to the weather conditions. Major three activities completed by Rahul are- go jogging, go to the office, and cleaning his residence. What Rahul is doing today depends on whether and whatever Rahul does he tells Ashok and Ashok has no proper information about the weather But Ashok can assume the weather condition according to Rahul work.

Ashok believes that the weather operates as a discrete Markov chain, wherein the chain there are only two states whether the weather is Rainy or it is sunny. The condition of the weather cannot be observed by Ashok, here the conditions of the weather are hidden from Ashok. On each day, there is a certain chance that Bob will perform one activity from the set of the following activities {“jog”, “work”,” clean”}, which are depending on the weather. Since Rahul tells Ashok that what he has done, those are the observations. The entire system is that of a hidden Markov model (HMM).

Here we can say that the parameter of HMM is known to Ashok because he has general information about the weather and he also knows what Rahul likes to do on average.

So let’s consider a day where Rahul called Ashok and told him that he has cleaned his residence. In that scenario, Ashok will have a belief that there are more chances of a rainy day and we can say that belief Ashok has is the start probability of HMM let’s say which is like the following.

The states and observation are:

`states = ('Rainy', 'Sunny')`

`observations = ('walk', 'shop', 'clean')`

And the start probability is:

`start_probability = {'Rainy': 0.6, 'Sunny': 0.4}`

Now the distribution of the probability has the weightage more on the rainy day stateside so we can say there will be more chances for a day to being rainy again and the probabilities for next day weather states are as following

```
transition_probability = {
'Rainy' : {'Rainy': 0.7, 'Sunny': 0.3},
'Sunny' : {'Rainy': 0.4, 'Sunny': 0.6},
}
```

From the above we can say the changes in the probability for a day is transition probabilities and according to the transition probability the emitted results for the probability of work that Rahul will perform is

```
emission_probability = {
'Rainy' : {'jog': 0.1, 'work': 0.4, 'clean': 0.5},
'Sunny' : {'jog': 0.6, 'work: 0.3, 'clean': 0.1},
}
```

This probability can be considered as the emission probability. Using the emission probability Ashok can predict the states of the weather or using the transition probabilities Ashok can predict the work which Rahul is going to perform the next day.

Below image shown the HMM process for making probabilities

So here from the above intuition and the example we can understand how we can use this probabilistic model to make a prediction. Now let’s just discuss the applications where it can be used.

**Application of Hidden Markov Model**

An application, where HMM is used, aims to recover the data sequence where the next sequence of the data can not be observed immediately but the next data depends on the old sequences. Taking the above intuition into account the HMM can be used in the following applications:

- Computational finance
- speed analysis
- Speech recognition
- Speech synthesis
- Part-of-speech tagging
- Document separation in scanning solutions
- Machine translation
- Handwriting recognition
- Time series analysis
- Activity recognition
- Sequence classification
- Transportation forecasting