The student should be made to:
To study principles and effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in human body
To discuss the physics of the senses
To explore the effects of radiation in matter and how isotopes are produced
To understand various detectors for detecting the presence of ionizing radiation.
UNIT I NON-IONIZING RADIATION AND ITS MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 9 Introduction and objectives – Tissue as a leaky dielectric – Relaxation processes, Debye model, Cole–Cole model, Overview of non-ionizing radiation effects-Low Frequency Effects- Higher frequency effects. Physics of light, Measurement of light and its unit- limits of vision and color vision an overview, Ultraviolet
UNIT II PHYSICS OF THE SENSES 7
Introduction and objectives – Cutaneous sensation – The chemical senses – Audition –Vision – Psychophysics
UNIT III PRINCIPLES OF RADIOACTIVE NUCLIDES 10
Radioactive Decay – Spontaneous Emission – Isometric Transition – Gamma ray emission, alpha, beta, Positron decay, electron capture, Sources of Radioisotopes Natural and Artificial radioactivity, Radionuclide used in Medicine and Technology ,Decay series, Production of radionuclides – Cyclotron produced Radionuclide- Reactor produced Radio- nuclide-fission and electron Capture reaction, Target and Its Processing Equation for Production of Radionuclides, radionuclide Generator-Technetium generator.
UNIT IV RADIOACTIVE DECAY AND INTERACTIONOF RADIATION WITH MATTER 11
Spontaneous Fission- Isomeric Transition-Alpha Decay-Beta Decay-PositronDecay-Electron Capture-Interaction of charged particles with matter –Specific ionization, Linear energy transfer range, Bremsstrahlung, Annihilation,Interaction of X and Gamma radiation with matter- Photoelectric effect, Compton Scattering , Pair production, Attenuation of Gamma Radiation ,Interaction of neutron with matter and their clinical significance.
UNIT V SCINTILLATION, SEMICONDUCTOR and GAS FILLED DETECTORS 8
Scintillation Detectors – Solid Scintillation Counters – Gamma-Ray Spectrometry-Liquid Scintillation Counters-Characteristics of Counting Systems-Gamma Well Counters-Thyroid Probe-Principles of Gas-Filled Detectors – Ionization Chambers-Geiger–Müller Counters
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
Explain about non-ionizing radiation, interaction with tissue and its effects.
Define and compare intensities of sensory stimuli
Summarizes how ionizing radiation interacts with the human body, how to quantify it and its levels seen in the environment and healthcare
Explain the fundamentals of radioactivity and radioactive isotopes
Illustrates the methods of detecting and recording the ionizing radiation and its interaction with matter
- Gopal B. Saha, ―Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine‖, 4th Edition, Springer, 2013.
- B H Brown, R H Smallwood, D C Barber, P V Lawford and D R Hose, ―Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering‖, 2nd Edition, IOP Publishers.2001.
- S.Webb ― The Physics of Medical Imaging‖, Taylor and Francis, 1988
- J.P.Woodcock, ―Ultrasonic,Medical Physics Handbook series 1‖, Adam Hilger, Bristol, 2002
- HyltonB.Meire and Pat Farrant ―Basic Ultrasound‖ John Wiley & Sons, 1995